Bouvier (1856) "A copy of an original writing or deed."
A transcript can be any copy of a legal document, but they are most commonly seen in the CWGK context as complete records of trials copied by the local court clerk and forwarded to the Governor to support some sort of action in the case. This example from Kenton County records all of the actions in a horse stealing case beginning with the finding of an indictment in December 1860, the plea and the summoning of a jury, testimony and cross-examinations, instructions to the jury, the rendering of the verdict, and post-trial motions for appeal.
The beginning of each section is noted in the margins, and a good court clerk like this one will create an index at the end of the document and swear to the accuracy of his transcription.
This case also features a lengthy pardon rationale by Governor Bramlette. A prewar circuit judge, Bramlette was a sharp and experienced legal mind. In particularly tough cases or ones where there could be political blowback from a pardon decision, Bramlette often recorded the justification for his action so that he or his staff could defend their actions if ever questioned.